Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS): Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella during her first trimester. If infection occurs 0–28 days before conception, there is a 43% chance the infant will be affected. If the infection occurs 0–12 weeks after conception, there is a 51% chance the infant will be affected. If the infection occurs 13–26 weeks after conception there is a 23% chance the infant will be affected by the disease. Infants are not generally affected if rubella is contracted during the third trimester. Congenital rubella serology time-line The classic triad for congenital rubella syndrome is: Sensorineural deafness (58% of patients) Eye abnormalities—especially retinopathy, cataract and microphthalmia (43% of patients) Congenital heart disease—especially patent ductus arteriosus (50% of patients) "Salt-and-pepper" retinopathy of the retina is the most common ocular manifestation of congenital rubella.Other manifestations of CRS may include: Spleen, liver or bone marrow problems (some of which may disappear shortly after birth) Mental retardation Small head size (microcephaly) Eye defects Low birth weight Thrombocytopenic purpura (presents as a characteristic blueberry muffin rash) Hepatomegaly Micrognathia Children who have been exposed to rubella in the womb should also be watched closely as they age for any indication of the following: Developmental delay Autism spectrum disorders Schizophrenia Growth retardation Learning disabilities Diabetes Glaucoma Prevention: Vaccination of girls of childbearing age against rubella can prevent congenital rubella syndrome. Photo: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS): Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella during her first trimester. If infection occurs 0–28 days before conception, there is a 43% chance the infant will be affected. If the infection occurs 0–12 weeks after conception, there is a 51% chance the infant will be affected. If the infection occurs 13–26 weeks after conception there is a 23% chance the infant will be affected by the disease. Infants are not generally affected if rubella is contracted during the third trimester. Congenital rubella serology time-line The classic triad for congenital rubella syndrome is: Sensorineural deafness (58% of patients) Eye abnormalities—especially retinopathy, cataract and microphthalmia (43% of patients) Congenital heart disease—especially patent ductus arteriosus (50% of patients) "Salt-and-pepper" retinopathy of the retina is the most common ocular manifestation of congenital rubella.Other manifestations of CRS may include: Spleen, liver or bone marrow problems (some of which may disappear shortly after birth) Mental retardation Small head size (microcephaly) Eye defects Low birth weight Thrombocytopenic purpura (presents as a characteristic blueberry muffin rash) Hepatomegaly Micrognathia Children who have been exposed to rubella in the womb should also be watched closely as they age for any indication of the following: Developmental delay Autism spectrum disorders Schizophrenia Growth retardation Learning disabilities Diabetes Glaucoma Prevention: Vaccination of girls of childbearing age against rubella can prevent congenital rubella syndrome.